Listening to classical music is often accompanied by information about the pieces: In concerts and operas, programs are distributed; every good classical CD comes with a booklet; and on the radio, classical pieces are usually introduced. A study at the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics examined the influence of different information on the evaluation of music by listeners, the research organization announced on its website.

The researchers investigated two questions: Does the prominence of composers influence whether or not the pieces are liked by listeners? And, how do stylistically different introductory texts influence the assessment of the music? All participants heard a Sinfonia by Josef Myslive?ek (1737–1781) as part of the study. While one half of the participants received the correct information about the composer, the other half were told that it was a piece by Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (1756–1791). One group read a text that described the expressive significance of the Sinfonia in a lively, rather emotive way, while the text of the second group described the formal features of the Sinfonia. After listening, all participants rated the Sinfonia according to how much they liked the music.

The results, which were recently published in the journal Psychology of Music, confirm the obvious assumption that preliminary information has a lasting influence on the listening experience of music

“However, contrary to common assumptions, the so called ‘prestige effect’ plays a lesser role than expected,” said Michaela Kaufmann, musicologist at the Max Planck Institute and co-author of the study.

The team of researchers, which also included Timo Fischinger and Wolff Schlotz from the Max Planck Institute, observed an age effect on prestige. In contrast to older participants, younger participants liked the piece better when it was attributed to Mozart. In this respect, this result confirms observations from earlier studies. Yet, for older listeners who also took part in the study, the attribution to Mozart had no effect on how well they liked the piece. The apparent immunity of the older participants—mostly experienced music lovers—indicates that stylistic experience in music can protect against external influences on the evaluation of music.

However, across all ages, the style in which the text was written had a strong effect. The participants in the group who had read the expressive text liked the same music better than those whose text presented factual, music analytical information.

“It is known from earlier research that the degree of emotional stimulation of the listener is a reliable indicator of the pleasure and enjoyment of experiencing art,” said Kaufmann.

A lively and imaginative language in accompanying texts may therefore promote an intensive empathy with the music on the part of the listener. For music education, for instance, the conscious design of accompanying texts offers the opportunity to inspire listeners of all ages.

Original Paper: Fischinger T, Kaufmann M, Schlotz W. If it’s Mozart, it must be good? The influence of textual information and age on musical appreciation. Psychology of Music. 2018. DOI:

Source: Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Psychology of Music